Women and Bone Disease

Women and Bone Metabolism

Osteoporosis in women is a metabolic bone disease that is characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue.1 Bone metabolism is the constant process through which the body removes old bone and replaces it with new bone.

Osteoporosis in women occurs when the body either loses too much bone density, does not make enough, or when there is a combination of both factors. This results in increased fragility of the bone, leading to the risk of fractures. The World Health Organization estimates that the lifetime risk for wrist, hip, or vertebral fractures occurring in people living in developed countries is very close to their risk for developing coronary heart disease.2

Women outnumber men when it comes to prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of fractures associated with the disease. By 2050, the worldwide incidence of hip fracture in men is projected to increase to over 1 million, but the incidence of hip fracture in women will be more than double that of men.3
 

  • Over 200 million people suffer from osteoporosis worldwide.4
  • Eighty percent of people suffering from osteoporosis are women.5
  • Women have a 40–50% risk of having a fracture during their lifetime, while men have a 13–22% risk.6

 

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Risk Factors

There are numerous modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors7 that increase the risk of developing osteoporosis in women.

 

Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis in women include:

  • Insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D intake
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Anorexia
  • Low sex-hormone levels
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Certain medications

 

Nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis in women include:

  • Age
  • Body size
  • Ethnicity
  • Family history
     

Symptoms

Symptoms of Osteoporosis in Women
Symptoms8 of osteoporosis in women typically do not present themselves until a fracture occurs. Bone loss occurs gradually over a long period of time and does not cause pain.

Related Diseases and Conditions9
Other conditions can be harmful to bone health. Rickets and osteomalacia caused by insufficient vitamin D in children and adults can cause fractures and bone deformities. Kidney disease (renal osteodystrophy) can cause fractures. Paget’s disease can cause bones to become deformed and weak. Genetic abnormalities (such as osteogenesis imperfecta) can cause abnormal bone growth susceptible to fractures. Endocrine disorders (such as overactive glands) can also lead to bone disease.

 


Solutions

Reducing the burden of bone disease in women includes understanding risk factors, making rapid, accurate diagnoses when symptoms occur, implementing appropriate therapies, and monitoring treatment. Laboratory diagnostic testing plays an integral role in helping care for women throughout the continuum of bone disease and of life.

 

 



Other Siemens Systems

Detection monitoring/management

 

 

 

 

 

    X*

Alanine aminotransaminase

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Alkaline phosphatase

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Aspartate aminotransaminase

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Bilirubin

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Calcium

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Creatinine

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Erythrocytes

 

 

 

 

 

    X

Ferritin

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

 

Gamma-glutyltransferase

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Hematocrit

 

 

 

 

 

    X

Hemoglobin

 

 

 

 

 

    X

Intact PTH

    X

 

    X

 

    X

 

Iron

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Leukocytes

 

 

 

 

 

    X

Magnesium

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Osteocalcin

 

 

 

 

    X

 

Phosphorus

 

    X

    X

    X

 

 

Pyrilinks-D

 

 

 

 

    X

 

Thrombocytes

 

 

 

 

 

    X

TSH

    X

 

    X

    X

    X

 

Vitamin D Total

    X

 

    X

 

 

 

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