Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent threat because it does not cause pain in early stages and usually remains unnoticed by the patient. Kidney disease often develops as a secondary complication of other common diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, or autoimmune disease.
CKD is the primary risk factor for end-stage renal disease and also puts people at increased risk for acute kidney injury and premature death. Early screening, detection, and treatment are critical in preventing further progression of the disease.
Assays for Early Detection of CKD
Acute Kidney Injury
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is the rapid loss of kidney function. It may be recognized when a person suddenly produces urine much less frequently and/or has a dramatic increase in the level of waste products in the blood that the kidneys normally filter out, and is often the result of trauma, illness, or a medication that damages the kidneys. It is most common in people who are already hospitalized, such as those who are critically ill and in the intensive care unit.
AKI is preventable and treatable often with few, if any, long-term health consequences. However, the lack of early identification and treatment in many countries—both in the developing and developed world—means that patients often don’t receive essential care before it is too late.1 If the damage caused by AKI persists, it can eventually progress to chronic kidney disease.
Assays for Acute Kidney Injury
End-Stage Renal Disease
End-stage kidney or renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of chronic kidney disease in which the kidneys no longer function well enough to meet the needs of daily life. People with diabetes or hypertension have the highest risk of developing ESRD.
Assays for End-Stage Renal Disease