The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) continues to rise globally, currently estimated at 10 to 16% of the world’s population.1 Chronic kidney disease is defined as longstanding (greater than three months) damage to kidney structure or function that poses a threat to well‐being.2 Kidney damage may be caused by physical injury, the presence of disease, or environmental insult. Diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis (inflammation) are the leading causes of CKD. Alarmingly, the growing number of people with diabetes worldwide will place even more individuals at risk for developing the disease.2 Left untreated, complications may affect the proper functioning of all organ systems, increasing the likelihood for progressive kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature mortality. Kidney failure, or end‐stage renal disease (ESRD), is characterized by a severe decline in the filtering capacity of kidneys, resulting in the accumulation of wastes to toxic levels in blood and the need for kidney transplantation or dialysis.2
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- How is kidney function measured?
- What are the symptoms and markers of CKD?
- What are the complications of CKD?