Wells Pretest Probability Score

Strategy for assessing PE and DVT
Wells Pretest Probability Score

Even with the high sensitivity and negative predictive value of D-dimer testing, the D-dimer assay cannot be used alone to exclude venous thromboembolism (VTE); it must be used in combination with a pretest probability scoring system. The Wells scoring system is commonly used to assess a patient’s risk of having either a PE or DVT based on a number of clinical features.


Criteria

Points            

Clinical signs and symptoms of DVT (objectively measured calf swelling or pain with palpation of deep vein region)

3.0

An alternative diagnosis is less likely than PE

3.0

Heart rate >100 beats per minute

1.5

Immobilization or surgery in the previous 4 weeks

1.5

Previous DVT or PE

1.5

Hemoptysis

1.0

Malignancy (on treatment, treated in the past 6 months, or palliative care)

1.0

Score

Mean Probability

Risk

<2 points

3.6

Low

2 to 6 points

20.5

Moderate

>6 points

66.7

High


Criteria

Points         

Active cancer (patient either receiving treatment for cancer within the previous 6 months or currently receiving palliative treatment)

1.0

Paralysis, paresis, or recent case immobilization of the lower extremities

1.0

Recently bedridden for ≥3 days, or major surgery within the previous 12 weeks requiring general or regional anesthesia

1.0

Localized tenderness along the distribution of the deep venous system

1.0

Entire leg swelling

1.0

Calf swelling at least 3 cm larger than that on the asymptomatic side (measured 10 cm below tibial tuberosity)

1.0

Pitting edema confined to the symptomatic leg

1.0

Collateral superficial veins (non-varicose)

1.0

Previously documented deep vein thrombosis

1.0

Alternative diagnosis at least as likely as deep vein thrombosis

-2.0

Low probability

Moderate probability

High probability

-2 - 0

1-2

3-8