• Substantial reduction in gadolinium chelate dose
  • The ability to obtain multiple phases
  • No need for a test bolus (or any other kind of bolus timing)
  • iPAT in two directions with a factor up to 9 (optional with iPAT extensions)

Clinical Applications

  • Peripheral angiography (Better hemodynamic evaluation of stenosis and collaterals, elimination of venous contamination)
  • Dynamic cerebral MRA (Evaluation of cerebral AVMs, vascular malformations)
  • Dynamic carotid, vertebral MRA (steal phenomenon, stenosis, collaterals…)
  • Dynamic pulmonary MRA
  • Dynamic renal MRA
  • Dynamic mesenteric, portal MRA
  • Dynamic Aortography (Aortic dissection visualization, differentiation of false and true lumen with the help of dynamic MRA)

Additional Information
TWIST is based on special k-space sampling. In this setting, k-space is divided into two regions. The centrally located region of k-space provides information regarding image contrast, the peripherally located aspect of k-space contributes principally to high spatial resolution. The main factor contributing to the acceleration of the sequence acquisition in this particular imaging approach is the fact that k-space lines in the center are more frequently sampled than are the k-space lines in the periphery during the passage of the contrast medium bolus through the covered 3D volume.